AN- Aṅguttara Nikāya
CBBEF- The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation
DN- Dīgha Nikāya
KN- Khuddaka Nikāya
PTS- Pāli Text Society
SN- Saṁyutta Nikāya
VM- Vinaya Mahāvagga
This is the assignment for 1st unit of BPS 11101, Introduction to Buddhist Psychology, external studies of Diploma of Buddhist Psychotherapy, 2006. At the beginning of the Study Guide mentioned that as external studies is more difficult than face to face teaching. It is true. The assessments for this unit that have specified are most important and essential for present favorite subject Buddhist Psychotherapy. Since I was introduced to this subject, was so interesting on this subject. Fortunately, I have a chance of study with Sophia College, as I have realized they are succeed in this field. It is true that eastern and western psychology have different arguments. It is also true that between Asian and western Buddhism have different views as I have discussed in the section 1 (Seekers of mental happiness). A clear video of this argument seems so clear in Dr. Patricia Sherwood’s Lectures. What I have emphasis that the essence of Buddhist teaching to Psychotherapy as it is specified. I say Buddhism as Psychotherapy, there are many evidences to prove this comment. As it also have been discussing in section 2. The section 3 as titled “The wheel of life and application to Buddhist Psychotherapy.” This is the teaching what the Buddha realized by himself, enjoyed himself, 2550 years. It is the Paṭiccasamuppāda, what the Theravada tradition says this is the original, and true that the same thing have explained in different ways in different other Buddhist traditions. As for the western, one of the great Buddhist Scholar Ven. Nyanatiloka in his Book “Buddhist Dictionary”, says “thought this subject has been very frequently treated by western authors, by far the most of them have completely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination (Paṭccasamuppāda), and even the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.” It is what the Buddha said not easy to understand as we are the ordinary persons. It has been discussed in section 3 with the words limitation. Especially original Pāli canonical texts have been emphasized in this writing. Hope it would make a sense for further development of this subject.
Core Concepts of Buddhism Influencing Mental Health
“Sabbo loko pakampito”, (All the world is quaking). Here all the world is our mind. The Buddha could see people are suffering from painful emotions, painful thoughts, painful relationships, and painful experiences. The negative emotions, anxiety, stress, depression, anger, guilt, shame, frustration, boredom, and so on. Because of these sufferings people seek for therapist. Present Therapists called them negative mental emotions. The Buddha said they are suffering (Dukkha), hindrance (Nivarṇa), and fetter (Saṁyojana) in our daily life, life to future. Main objective of the Buddhist Psychotherapy is to stop negative emotions arising, let positive emotions arise, to develop and cultivate them. In this case morality (Sīla), concentration (Samādhi), and perfect wisdom or insight is essential. This is the foundation.
Seekers of Mental happiness-
‘Come, O students (Bhikkhus), the method is well expounded; lead the holy life to make a complete end of suffering.’(Ehi Bhikkhu, svākkhāto dhammo, care brahmacariya, sabba dukkhassa antakiriyya). From that time to till now people are following the method to get rid from suffering themselves. The method is called the intermediate way, or the middle way (Majjhimapatipadā). This is the way which leads to the end of suffering.
Present Buddhism it quite difference from the early Buddhism as it is practicing as a religion. It is true. Especially the Buddhists in East and South-East Asia. Even though the Buddha once suggested to Kālāmas-
“Come Kālāmas, do not be satisfied with hearsay or with tradition or with legendary lore or with what has come down in your scriptures or with conjecture or with logical inference or with weighting evidence or with liking for a view after pondering it over or with some one else’s ability or with the thought “The monk is our teacher”. When you know in yourselves that “these ideas are unprofitable, liable, to censure, condemned by the wise, being adopted and put into effect they lead to harm and suffering, then you should abandon them…when you know in your selves “these things are profitable” then you should practice them and abide in them”.
What is profitable? What is not profitable? How to measure? Buddha’s teaching emphasizes one’s perfect knowledge, the insight (paññā) of the individual. To gain happiness we should develop our insight which is hidden within us. Once the Buddha said to demon Ālāvaka as “Paññājivṁ Jīvitamahu seṭṭhaṁ” means by means of knowledge one can attain perfection (Parisujjhati). The perfect perfection only leads by the perfect knowledge, as provided by the Buddha, of either mundane or supra mundane.
While some Asian are seeking for mental happiness through religious performing or mystical practices, but in West a new group of Kālāma appeared, hopefully. A new group of mental happiness seekers. As one Western Buddhist convert expressed his opinion as “It provides one with guidelines for loving kindness in one’s life today rather than just raging around consuming the most we can and ripening into life in a greedy sort of way or just giving up and doing nothing”.
Dr. Patricia Sherwood provides clear and meaningful information about the new Kālāmas, the Westerns.
Dr. Patricia Sherwood says that she spoke to saw Buddhism as providing understanding and skills that work in their daily lives to create the experience of peace. They appreciated Buddhism’s recognition of the need to train the mind. According to the early Buddhist teaching the theme was only controlling the mind (Manena sambharo sādhu), because mind leads us, leads our world.
Buddhism in Australia
Dr. Patricia Sherwood recognizes that most of the research on Buddhism in Australia has on migrant from South, East Asia and their experiences on resettlement in Australia (Ata, 1982; Grant, 1979; Knowels, 1986; Jupp, 1989; Jayasuriya and Sheldrake, 1982). Burmese Theravada tradition, Ch’an sect; Soto Zen Buddhist society, were formed time to time. The first Tibetan Lamas came to Australia in 1974 and a number of Tibetan centres opened across Australia. As with other western countries, Western Buddhists in Australia have been influenced primarily by Theravada Buddhism until 1960’s, followed Zen and Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. Buddhism is in the fastest growing religion in Australia.
Mental Health Projection
‘Go forth, O Bhikkhus, for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, benefits, and happiness of gods and men. Let not two go by one way. Preach, O Bhikkhus the Dhamma, which is excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, and excellent in the end, both in the spirit and in the letter. Proclaim the holy life, altogether perfect and pure. (Caratha bhikkhave carikaṁ, bahūjana hitāya…)
Present mental health projection, as we find clear figure in her lectures, all of them as like the happiness for many, the good for many.
In this lecture she addresses the nature of socially engaged Buddhism in mental health projection, she points out following aspects-
1. Education of the Adult Public
2. Education of Children
3. Working with the sick and dying in the hospitals/ hospices
4. Working with the sick in the community
5. Visiting prisons
6. Working with drug addicts
7. Fund rising for the poor and needy in Australia, or over the world as well
8. Speaking up for human and against oppression
9. Compassionate activities on behalf of non-human sentient beings
Upon a time Buddhist monks traveled place to place, Kandahar (Afghanistan) to Iran, Siberia, Java, to send theses messages. Many foreign Students came to Central Asia to learn about the method of mental happiness projection. Present days, The Buddhist Peace fellowship works for East Timorese for aboriginal right issues, impacts of globalization. Dr. Sherwood says that several organizations explains the need to give to the poor by arguing that giving is profound way of developing Mettā and an essential part of human Kamma.
These all mental projections hopefully are working. Many organizations, communities are involved in such projects. Dr. Sherwood is working herself, succeed in her mission. She proved that this mission is helpful and useful for the people of society. Such kind of projections is need for the stability of personal and the society. The Buddha said to monks-
“O Monks, this method (Dhamma), excellent in the beginning, in the middle, and excellent in the end, both in the spirit and in the letter. Proclaim the holy life, altogether perfect and pure.”
This is the only way as the Buddha said (Ekāyano ayaṁ Bhikkhave maggo) which Dr. P Sherwood says- which
1 Need for meaning (atthāya)
2 Need for compassion (Hitāya)
3 Need for the health and peace (Sukhāya)
4 Need for connectedness (Saṅgama)
The philosophy of four noble truths, which is the heart of the Buddha’s teaching we find here the similarity to Buddhist psychotherapy. Suppose there is a mental illness, the cause of mental illness, if the illness is curable, and the therapy for curing. Here we find the similarity as following
1. if there is a mental illness- Noble truth of suffering (Dukkha Sacca)
2. the cause of the illness- Noble truth of the cause of Suffering (Samudaya Sacca)
3. the illness is curable- Noble truth of cessation of suffering (Nirodha sacca)
4. the method of healing- Noble truth of the path which leads to the cessation of suffering (Magga sacca)
The core concepts of Buddhism influencing mental health are many to quote as we found a huge collection in Pāli Buddhist texts. There are some performances as called meritorious performances (Puññākiriya vatthu), said to be helpful to make mind purified as are following-
1. Generosity or charity (Dāna)
2. Observing morality (Sīla)
3. Meditation or concentrative mind (Bhāvanā)
4. paying due respect to those who are worthy of it (Apacayana)
5. helping others in performing good deeds (Veyyavacca)
6. sharing one’s merit (Pattidāna)
7. rejoicing in others’ good deeds and saying “well done, well done…” when one sees, hears or known them (Pattānumodana)
8. listening to the well doctrine, listening to the counselor, and respect to them (Dhammasavana)
9. teaching the doctrine or counseling (Dhammadesanā)
10. straightening one’s views, having faith in Kamma and its results (Diṭṭhijukamma)
Buddhist teaching to live in four sublime states-
1. Mettā- loving-kindness and benevolence for the welfare of all beings
2. Karuṇā- Compassion on seeing miserable beings and wishing them to be liberated from suffering
3. Mūditā- Sympathetic joy on seeing happy beings
4. Upekkhā- Equanimity or stability of mind without love or hatred towards all sentient beings.
In very briefly, there is very popular verse from the Dhammapada, it is-
“To do good, not to do bad, purifying one’s mind, this is the teaching of the Buddha(s).”
The highest gain is the health (Arogya parama lābha), either physical health or mental health. With the decline of religion and the rise of science, jurisdiction over the problems of happiness and suffering were transferred from the former to the later. Scientific medicine took responsibility for the physical sufferings and scientific psychology and psychiatry- and their common issue, psychotherapy- assumed authority over problems of the mind, emotions, and behavior. In this field Buddhist psychotherapy is the unique as it is proved by Dr. Patricia Sherwood.
Introduction to the Notion of Buddhist Psychotherapy: Meeting of Western and Eastern Psychologies
Psychotherapy is the treatment of mental illness by discussing with the client. Problem which rather than by giving them drugs, solving the problem in natural way. It has recognized as the branch of western medicines. Steadman’s Electronic Dictionary defines counseling as “A professional relationship and activity in which one person endeavors to help another to understand and to solve his or her adjustment problems; the giving of advice, opinion, and instruction to direct the judgment or conduct of another.”
The Buddha had a single purpose in all his preaching that was to guide man to the elimination of suffering, irrespective of caste, color, or creed. He was the first person in this world historically on record as having down a distinction between physical and mental illness. About 2550 years ago the Buddha detected the causes of mental illnesses, and shown that they are curable. The Buddha demonstrated monks that the mental illnesses can be cured only by making mind calm, pure, concentrated, and by insight developing. According to the Buddhist psychotherapy causes of mental illnesses are the defilement (Kilesa), hindrances (Nivaraṇa), fetters (Saṁyojana), and some negative mental emotions.
Buddhism as Psychotherapy
From psychotherapeutic point of view Buddhism is entirely Psychotherapy. There are many parables in Buddhist Pāli texts which refer to this argument.
A very wonderful dialogue of the Buddha found in the text that is “ Sabbe Puthijjanā Ummattakā” means all worldly beings are deranged. There are two kinds of diseases that the Buddha detected as-
1. Physical disease (Kāyika Roga)
2. Mental disease (Cetasikā Roga)
He further said “there are people who enjoy freedom from physical diseases for one years, for two years, for ten years, …….., for hundred years or more. But rare in this world are those who enjoy freedom from mental diseases even for a one moment! Except the Arahant or well trained disciples of the Buddha. At many occasion the Buddha claimed himself as a “Unsurpassable Physician and Surgeon” (Anuttaro bhisakko sallakatto), and also the “Unsurpassable Trainer” (Anuttaro purisadamma sārathi). The parable is interesting to quote-
"I am a Brahman,
Responsive to requests, open-handed,
Bearing my last body,
An unsurpassed doctor & surgeon.
You are my children,
My sons, born from my mouth, born of the Dhamma,
Created by the Dhamma,
Heirs to the Dhamma,
Not heirs in material things”
Psychology of East and West
Since the realization of the importance of psychology and psychotherapy as a subject of study in the West, much enthusiasm particularly with its practical application has been generated and as a result many works have been written on the subject. Prof. David J. Kalupahana says it is true that the scientific approaches of Buddhist psychology seemingly few (The Principal of Buddhist Psychology, State University of New York Press, 1987). Mr. Padmal de Silva in his paper says there are some problems of translation (Current Psychology, Vol- 9 No-3 Fall. 1990, pp 236-254, an Internet Collection). In Mahayana Buddhist countries too interest became manifest more than half century ago and since then eminent Buddhist scholars began gradually to take part in the discussions on this subject. A most well-known figure is Dr. D.T. Suzuki, internationally acclaimed exponent of Zen Buddhism. He and his colleagues, themselves internationally recognized psychologists. Their fruitful collaboration appeared in a book entitled “Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis.” Grove Press, Inc, New York, 1960. Now we look back to earlier. The condition of man today gives a sense of timeless to our underlying theme; the image of man as patient, society as sick and Buddha and Freud as physicians.
The basis of Buddhist psychology are-
1. The Nāma-rūpa analysis,
2. The Paṭicca-samuppāda analysis,
3. The Patthāna analysis
4. The classification of Citta (thought), and Cetasika (Mental factor).
The time of Sigmund Freud, his contemporary, and his analysis
The nature of Instincts: Buddhism, Schopenhauer and Freud
(sorry the diagram is not appearing here. )
We learn from this figure that the nature of instincts according to Freud and Schopenhauer’s point of view, is just only a modern scientific explanation or approaches to the Buddhist psychology that the causes of suffering is craving (Taṇha), and they are three, Sensual desire, craving for material things, and non-material things.
Buddhist psychotherapy acknowledges the connection between mind and body. Dr Padmasri de Silva says body and mind is psychophysical complex.
The psychophysical complex based on following aspects-
1. The five aggregates (Pañcakkhandha)
2. Mind (Nāma)
3. matter (Rūpa)
4. consciousness (Citta)
5. Mental state (Cetasika)
6. Repulsiveness (of the body) (Paṭikulamānasikāra)
7. six temperaments (Carita)
The Human Body
(sorry the diagram is not appearing here).
Healing Through Breathing
Dr. Patricia Sherwood says Buddhist psychotherapy has much to contribute to some critical process. Through the process of meditative breathing one can slow down the breathing sufficiently to be able to trace the patterns behind the anger and the explosion. She has proved this through her successful case studies. Joy Manne, PhD has explained in his Article titled “The Healing Breath”, table 2 Ānāpanassati and Contemporary Therapies. It shows the strong similarity between the Path of the Buddha recommended towards enlightenment and the range of contemporary methods for psychotherapy and personal and spiritual development. As following-
(sorry, the chart is disorganized here)
Buddhist Breathing meditation
Minnicott (Freudian), Reich (Reichian), Bioenergeties (Lowen), Rebirthing (Orr, Ray, Leonard, Laut, Morningstar), Conscious Breathing Techniques ( Hendricks, Manne, etc)
1. As he breathes in a long breath he recognizes that he is breathing in along breath; as he breathes out….
2. ….as a short breath
e.g. Reich, Lowen, Rebirthing, autogenic Traning, Gendlin, focusing, the new field of Somatic
3. he trains himself to breathe in and out experiencing his whole body
4. …calming bodily activities…
All contemporary therapies and positive thinking techniques, etc.
5. ..experiencing joy…
6. experiencing well-being..
All forms of analysis and psychotherapy; all the new methods of personal growth and spiritual development, all the body therapies.
7. …experiencing mental processes
8. calming mental processes
9. experiencing (his) mind
Humanistic and transpersonal psychology, Reichian, Bioenergetics, rebirthing, conscious breathing technique.
10. in pleasing the mind
11. concentrating the mind
12. releasing the mind
(not only according to the Buddhist definition)
Transpersonal psychology, Peak experiences, Satori
13. observing impermanence
14. ..observing freedom from passion
15. observing cessation
16. observing renunciation
This meditation is most effectual method that the Buddha said himself, Ānāpanassati Bhāvanā, is has the theme of meditation and has great fruition (Mahāpphālani hoti mahānisaṁsa), it has the fulfillment of Four foundation of mindfulness (Cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripureti), the four foundation of mindfulness has the fulfillment of seven factors of Enlightenment (Sattabojjhaṅge paripureti), these seven factors of enlightenment have the fulfillment of self or perfect liberation (vijjāvimuttite paripureti).
(sorry, the diagram is not appearing here).
The relationship between Buddhist therapist and client is compared to in the texts as affection between father and son (Ācāriyo bhikkhave antevāsikamhi putta cittaṁ upatthāpesseti, antevāsoko ācāriyamhi pitu cittaṁ upatthāpessati).
The psychotherapist has to be balanced in his verbally, bodily and mentally. Behavior of the therapist must be so pleasant to others. The therapist must refrain from false speech, harsh or unpleasant speech, gossip or frivolous talk, which serves no meaningful or useful purpose. The words use in therapeutic approaches should be well said, righteous, pleasant and truthful.
Seven qualities of Buddhist Instructors-
1. detailed in the knowledge of doctrine (Dhammāya)
2. The knowledge of the meaning what is thought to others (Atthāya)
3. Awareness of self (Attaññāya)
4. Knowing of the quantity of the consuming four requisites (Matthāya)
5. The knowledge of time for therapeutic approaches (Kālañña)
6. The awareness of behaviors of people (Parisajjhañña)
7. The knowledge of associating people (Puggalañña)
The mental activity of the therapist must get rid from thought of instance greed, of ill will, and wrong or mistaken beliefs to harm to one’s moral life. He must have to be fulfilled up the mind with four sublime states. Extending ultimate universal love and goodwill (Mettā) to beings without any discrimination is very essential as a Buddhist psychotherapist. Compassion (Karuṇā) for all living beings also one who in suffering, sympathetic joy (Mūditā) in others successes, equanimity (Upekkhā) in all vicissitudes at life are other three abodes.
(Sorry, there is diagrama but it is not appearing).
(BP- Buddhist Psychotherapist
R&F- Relatives and friends)
The matter is what we have to emphasis is dialogue methods. And the dialogue method of Buddhist psychotherapy is extraordinarily stimulating, inspiring and intellectually rewarding. Buddhist psychological, philosophical, and ethical aspects are combined. In this case ethics should be developed.
The Wheel of Life and Application to Buddhist Psychotherapy
As it is said in the second section’s conclusion that the Buddhist philosophical, psychological, and ethical aspects are mostly combined in discussion. We now would discuss about one of the Great, propound psychological philosophy of the Buddhist teaching which is the wheel of life and application to Buddhist psychotherapy. It is really little to understand as many of western scholars from west misunderstand of this.once one of the prominent disciples of the Buddha, named Ānanda, remarked that, despite its apparently difficulty the teaching of the interdependent origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) is actually quite simple. The Buddha rebuked him saying not to say so, that infect this teaching is very deep and propound.
A wonderful dialogue of the Buddha has found in the Tipiṭaka Pāli canon which covers all philosophical teaching of the Buddha, as following-
‘When this exists that comes into being; with the coming into being of this, that exists. When this does not exists that too does not come into being; with the cessation of this, that too ceases to exist.’
(Imasmiṁ sati idaṁ hoti, imassa uppāda idaṁ uppajjati, imasmṁ asati idaṁ na hoti, imassa nirodha idaṁ nirujjhati)
the realization of this theory is most important thing that indicate there are some causes of mental suffering, they are healable, and constantly changing, life to life, here and here after.
We are caused and effected (Paṭiccasamuppāda)
In our daily life, for all activities, we are caused and effected. How is it? Some one are put into prison as his punishment, because he did do something against law and order. You cut your finger by knife while having apple, may be because you did not take care when you were cutting or you were not mindful on it. You are not happy in your love, may be because of between you and her have no good understanding. Some are happy because they have good understanding to each other. You are succeeding because you strive diligently and in right way. Like this, everyday we are caused and effected in our daily performances.
In Buddhist term we find this teaching as called Paṭiccasamuppāda, which means cause and effect or dependent origination or because of. It is one of the most important and propound philosophy, as the teaching of the Buddha.
In this writing we will see only its general basis on our daily life. Even though of course this method is used in ultimate sense. This is the doctrine of the conditionally of all physical and psychological phenomena, a doctrine which together with that of impersonality, forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha. It shows the conditionally and dependant nature of the interruption flux of manifold physical and psychological phenomena of existence conventionally called the ego, or man or woman, we, animal etc. the dependent origination as following-
1. Through ignorance is conditioned the mental and formations arises. (Avijjā paccayā saṅkhāra).
2. Through the formations are conditioned consciousness arises. (Saṅkhāra paccayā viññāṇa).
3. Through consciousness is conditioned the mental and physical phenomena arise. (Viññāṇa paccayā nāma-rūpa).
4. Through the mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six sense bases arise. (Nāma-rūpa paccayā saḷāyātana).
5. Through the six sense bases are conditioned the sensual impressions arise. (Saḷyātana paccayā phasso).
6. Through the impression is conditioned the feeling arises. (Phasso paccayā vedanā).
7. Through feeling is conditioned craving arises. (Vedanā paccayā taṇhā).
8. Through craving is conditioned clinging arises. (Taṇhā paccayā upādāna).
9. Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming arises. (Upādāna paccayā bhava).
10. Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirthing. (bhava paccayā jāti).
11. Through rebirth is conditioned aging, death (sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair) arise (12)(Jāti paccayā jarāmarana-dukkha-domanassa-upāyāsa).
Here we see from beginning to end of aspects of Paṭiccasamuppāda that the root cause of our suffering is ignorance (Avijjā), and because of ignorance how we proceed gradually to suffering. to remove the ignorance is most important. It is only possible by developing the pure knowledge. Because of our ignorance we do act either good or bad, and we sense it. This sense arises in mind through body which is called mind and matter (Nāma-rūpa). The have six sense faculties that are craving time to time. When the craving is clinging leads us to rebirth. And we are born and suffer from old age, sickness, death and so on.
And, of course, we are particularly interested in the principal of dependent origination insofar as it concerns the problem of suffering. We are interested in how it explains the situation in which we find ourselves here and now. In this sense it is important to notice that dependent origination is essentially and preliminary a teaching that has to do with the problem of suffering and how to free ourselves from suffering, how to make mind healthy and happy, and not description of the evolution of the universe.
Once the Buddha said that he who sees dependent origination sees the teaching (Dhamma), and who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha. This is said, it is the key to liberation. Once we understand the function of dependent origination we can set about breaking its vicious circle. We can do this by removing the impurities of the mind and the ignorance, craving and clinging. Once these impurities are eliminated, actions will not be performed and habit energy will not be produced. Once actions ceases, suffering also ceases.
In the diagram shown the relationship of dependence between three successive lives-
(there is a CHART but it is not appearing) it is important, if u need please, e-mail for this)
1. Ignorance (Avijjā)
2. Kamma-Formation (Saṅkhāra)
3. Consciousness (Viññāṇa)
4. Corporeality And Mentality (Nāma-Rūpa)
5. Six Sense Bases (Āyatana)
6. Impression (Phassa)
7. Feeling (Vedanā)
8. Craving (Taṇhā)
9. Clinging (Upādāna)
10. Process Of Becoming (Bhava)
11. Rebith (Jāti)
12. old age and Death (Jarā-maraṇa)
5 Causes- 1, 2, 8, 9, 10
5 Results- 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
5 Causes- 1, 2, 8, 9, 10
5 results- 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Here, Kamma as a technical term never signifies anything but moral or immoral action. Here the Buddhist ethic is present and it should be developed. The volitional activities or Kamma formations, as either causing results in the present life or being the causes of future destiny and rebirth. Ultimately, we are in suffering and rounding ourselves in this cycle of rebirth. Ultimate goal of this teaching is to escape from this cycle or this suffering.
We see the present life causalities, our present consciousness, mentality and materiality (our bodies), our six senses faculties, contacts, and feelings are the causes of present life suffering. Healing is to control the faculties, concentrate and developing insight, to balance our feelings, desires, which are clinging and causing mental suffering.
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Please, feel free for MS copy if it is in good purpose
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